OO VS Procedural

Consider this part 2 of a critical review of the book “Clean Code” by Robert C. Martin. Previously I mentioned that I don’t agree with some of the ideas found in this book on how to write clean code. I argued that following some of his ideas, result in the exact opposite, unmaintainable code. More specifically, his wording of the principle:

Functions should do one thing. They should do it well. They should do it only. – Uncle Bob (Robert C. Martin)

I argued that the main reason for a function should be reuse, and not readability. As a result of this statement, I also disagree with his statement that comments should be replaced by functions wherever possible.

It’s important to note, that I do agree with most of the other concepts mentioned in the book (as far as I have read it), and even gained some new insights.

I will not go into detail about all pros and cons of procedural programming versus OOP, but I do want to point out that his argument against OOP seems flawed.

Procedural code (code using data structures) makes it easy to add new functions without changing the existing data structures. OO code, on the other hand, makes it easy to add new classes without changing existing functions.
Procedural code makes it hard to add new data structures because all the functions must change. OO code makes it hard to add new functions because all the classes must change. – Uncle Bob (Robert C. Martin)

To help you visualize, here is the procedural example from the book. I’m quite sure you’ll be able to figure out the OO example yourself.

public class Geometry {
    public double area(Object shape) throws NoSuchShapeException {
        if (shape instanceof Square) {
            Square s = (Square)shape;
            return s.side * s.side;
        }
        else if (shape instanceof Rectangle) {
            Rectangle r = (Rectangle)shape;
            return r.height * r.width;
        }
        else if (shape instanceof Circle) {
            Circle r = (Circle)shape;
            return PI * c.radius * c.radius;
        }
        throw new NoSuchShapeException();
    }
}

John already mentions one argument in his post, relating to what “hard” and “easyexactly means in this statement. By changing these definitions with what he is actually referring to, it becomes obvious it doesn’t say anything about whether or not one is better than the other.

Procedural code allows you to extend functionality by adding one function which supports behavior for all the required data structures. OO code, on the other hand, requires you to add the new function to all the different data structures.
Procedural code makes you adjust all functions to support a new data structure. OO code makes you implement a new function in all data structures.

I would even say, it becomes clear why this is actually a pro argument for OO:

  • Handling all data structures inside one function breaks the cohesion principle, which ironically as John already stated, is a principle on which Robert C. Martin himself based his Single Responsibility Principle.
  • When adding a new data structure in procedural code, you need to make sure that every function supports it. OO forces you to do all the required implementations.

Based on his previous quotation Martin concludes:

The idea that everything is an object is a myth. Sometimes you really do want simple data structures with procedures operating on them. – Uncle Bob (Robert C. Martin)

Everything can be represented as an object (also concepts), so I don’t see how that is a myth. I do agree with the conclusion, but in my opinion it has got nothing to do with the first sentence. Instead of the geometry example, a better example would be different functions operating on a set of Point objects to draw various different shapes.

Author: Steven Jeuris

I have a PhD in Human-Computer Interaction and am currently working both as a software engineer at iMotions and as a postdoc at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). This blend of research and development is the type of work which motivates and excites me the most. Currently, I am working on a distributed platform which enables researchers to conduct biometric research 'in the wild' (outside of the lab environment). I have almost 10 years of professional software development experience. Prior to academia, I worked for several years as a professional full-stack software developer at a game development company in Belgium: AIM Productions. I liked the work and colleagues at the company too much to give up entirely for further studies, so I decided to combine the two. In 2009 I started studying for my master in Game and Media Technology at the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands, from which I graduated in 2012.

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